Full Length Article
DNA damage and shell malformation in Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis

Under a Creative Commons license
Open Access


Pollutants in waters that cause DNA damage, such as tributyltin, have been known to cause malformations in the mussel shell, which need attention to be studied. Shell malformations or deformities of blue mussels were observed in Norsminde Fjord harbour.  The mean shell thickness index of blue mussels from the polluted site was greater than it from expected clean waters.  DNA damages detected using the versatile comet assay which expressed as tail length and olive tail moment were evaluated in blue mussels gill cells both in situ and in vitro.  The results showed that the average of DNA damages in treatments, namely the polluted site, tributyltin chloride (TBTC) (10 g/l), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (10 M) were different from the expected unpolluted site.  Although comet assay is considered as an unspecific assay, the results proposed the similarity of DNA damage character of blue mussel gill cells when exposed to tributyltin chloride and taken directly from the polluted site. The data obtained are important for assessing the environmental risks created by genotoxic agents, e.g. tributyltin, used as antifouling agents in marine paints.


DNA damage
Comet assay
Blue mussel
Antofouling agents

Funding Information

The Danish Agency for Development Assistance (DANIDA)


License and permission

Creative Commons LicenseThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Publisher's Note

Sangia Publishing remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Ethical approval acknowledgements

No ethical approval required for this article.

Competing interest

No conflict of interest has been declared by the authors.

Supplementary files

Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study, and/or contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

References (1)

Allemand, D.; Tambutté, É.; Girard, J.-P. & Jaubert, J., 1998. Organic matrix synthesis in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata: role in biomineralization and potential target of the organotin tributyltin. The Journal of experimental biology, 201(13): 2001–2009, ISSN: 1477-9145.

Alzieu, C., 1991. Environmental problems caused by TBT in France: assessment, regulations, prospects. Marine Environmental Research, 32(1–4): 7–17, ISSN: 0141-1136.

Alzieu, C., 1998. Tributyltin: case study of a chronic contaminant in the coastal environment. Ocean & Coastal Management, 40(1): 23–36, ISSN: 0964-5691.

Amara, I.; Miled, W.; Slama, R. Ben & Ladhari, N., 2018. Antifouling processes and toxicity effects of antifouling paints on marine environment. A review. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 57: 115–130, ISSN: 1382-6689.

Asllani, F. H.; Schürz, M.; Bresgen, N.; Eckl, P. M. & Alija, A. J., 2019. Genotoxicity risk assessment in fish (Rutilus rutilus) from two contaminated rivers in the Kosovo. Science of the total environment, 676: 429–435, ISSN: 0048-9697.

Azqueta, A. & Collins, A. R., 2013. The essential comet assay: a comprehensive guide to measuring DNA damage and repair. Archives of toxicology, 87(6): 949–968, ISSN: 1432-0738.

Azqueta, A.; Ladeira, C.; Giovannelli, L.; Boutet-Robinet, E.; Bonassi, S.; Neri, M.; Gajski, G.; Duthie, S.; Del Bo, C. & Riso, P., 2020. Application of the comet assay in human biomonitoring: An hCOMET perspective. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 783: 108288, ISSN: 1383-5742.

Baines, C.; Lerebours, A.; Thomas, F.; Fort, J.; Kreitsberg, R.; Gentes, S.; Meitern, R.; Saks, L.; Ujvari, B. & Giraudeau, M., 2021. Linking pollution and cancer in aquatic environments: A review. Environment International, 149: 106391, ISSN: 0160-4120.

Batel, R.; Bihari, N.; Rinkevich, B.; Dapper, J.; Schäcke, H.; Schröder, H. C. & Müller, W. E. G., 1993. Modulation of organotin-induced apoptosis by the water pollutant methyl mercury in a human lymphoblastoid tumor cell line and a marine sponge. Marine Ecology Progress Series, : 245–251, ISSN: 0171-8630.

Beaumont, A. R. & Budd, M. D., 1984. High mortality of the larvae of the common mussel at low concentrations of tributyltin. Marine pollution bulletin, 15(11): 402–405, ISSN: 0025-326X.

Bebianno, M. J. & Garcia da Fonseca, T., 2020. Fate and effects of cytostatic pharmaceuticals in the marine environment. In: Fate and Effects of Anticancer Drugs in the Environment, Springer, pp. 295–330.

Ben Ameur, W.; El Megdiche, Y.; Ennaceur, S.; Mhadhbi, T.; Ben Hassine, S.; Annabi, A.; de Lapuente, J.; Driss, M. R.; Borràs, M. & Eljarrat, E., 2022. Biomarkers responses and polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated analogs measured in Sparus aurata from the Lagoon of Bizerte, Tunisia. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, : 1–15, ISSN: 1614-7499.

Black, J. J. & Baumann, P. C., 1991. Carcinogens and cancers in freshwater fishes. Environmental Health Perspectives, 90: 27–33, ISSN: 0091-6765.

Bolognesi, C.; Cirillo, S. & Chipman, J. K., 2019. Comet assay in ecogenotoxicology: applications in Mytilus sp. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 842: 50–59, ISSN: 1383-5718.

Bolognesi, C.; Rabboni, R. & Roggieri, P., 1996. Genotoxicity biomarkers in M. galloprovincialis as indicators of marine pollutants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology, 113(2): 319–323, ISSN: 0742-8413.

Bryan, G. W. & Gibbs, P. E., 2020. Impact of low concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on marine organisms: a review. Metal ecotoxicology, : 323–361, ISSN: 1003069975.

Camargo Filho, C. B.; dos Santos, A. R.; Ferrari, J. L.; Preto, B. de L.; Kunz, S. H.; Senhorelo, A. P.; Burak, D. L. & Rossi Junior, J. L., 2022. Evaluating the Trace Element Concentration in Sediments and Assessing Their Genotoxicity in Ichthyofauna of a Coastal Lagoon in Southeastern Brazil. Diversity, 14(2): 151, ISSN: 1424-2818.

Cant, A.; Bonnard, M.; Porcher, J.-M.; Prygiel, J.; Catteau, A.; Delahaut, L.; Palluel, O.; Turiès, C.; Geffard, A. & Bado-Nilles, A., 2022. Integration of Genotoxic Biomarkers in Environmental Biomonitoring Analysis Using a Multi-Biomarker Approach in Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758). Toxics, 10(3): 101, ISSN: 2305-6304.

Chagot, D.; Alzieu, C.; Sanjuan, J. & Grizel, H., 1990. Sublethal and histopathological effects of trace levels of tributyltin fluoride on adult oysters Crassostrea gigas. Aquatic Living Resources, 3(2): 121–130, ISSN: 0990-7440.

Cordelli, E.; Bignami, M. & Pacchierotti, F., 2021. Comet assay: a versatile but complex tool in genotoxicity testing. Toxicology Research, 10(1): 68–78, ISSN: 2045-4538.

Cosentino, S.; Aureli, F. & Iannilli, V., 2022. Bisphenols A and Its Analogues Induce Genotoxic Damage in Marine and Freshwater Amphipods. Environmental Advances, : 100183, ISSN: 2666-7657.

Costa, P. M., 2022. Current aspects of DNA damage and repair in ecotoxicology: a mini-review. Ecotoxicology, 31(1): 1–11, ISSN: 1573-3017, DOI: 10.1007/s10646-021-02487-2, Available: <https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02487-2>.

Cui, Z.; Luan, X.; Li, S.; Zhao, X.; Lin, Z.; Li, J.; Gao, W.; Zheng, L.; Ma, Z. & Xie, J., 2021. Genotoxicity detection of oil-containing drill cuttings by Comet assay based on a demersal marine fish Mugilogobius chulae. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 208: 111655, ISSN: 0147-6513.

Cvetković, V. J.; Takić Miladinov, D. & Stojanović, S., 2018. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity testing of biomaterials. In: Biomaterials in clinical practice, Springer, pp. 501–527.

D’costa, A. H.; Shyama, S. K.; MK, P. K. & Furtado, S., 2018. The Backwater Clam (Meretrix casta) as a bioindicator species for monitoring the pollution of an estuarine environment by genotoxic agents. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 825: 8–14, ISSN: 1383-5718.

Depledge, M. H., 2020. The rational basis for the use of biomarkers as ecotoxicological tools. In: Nondestructive biomarkers in vertebrates, CRC Press, pp. 271–295, ISBN: 036781370X.

Devi, J. & Pachwania, S., 2018. Recent advancements in DNA interaction studies of organotin (IV) complexes. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 91: 44–62, ISSN: 1387-7003.

Dias, R.; D’Costa, A.; Praveen Kumar, M. K. & Shyama, S. K., 2021. DNA damage and biochemical responses in estuarine bivalve Donax incarnatus (Gmelin, 1791) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of an organophosphate pesticide monocrotophos. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193(6): 1–12, ISSN: 1573-2959.

Dixon, D. R. & Clarke, K. R., 1982. Sister chromatid exchange: a sensitive method for detecting damage caused by exposure to environmental mutagens in the chromosomes of adult Mytilus edulis. Marine Biology Letters, (3).

Dos Santos, F. S.; Neves, R. A. F.; Crapez, M. A. C.; Teixeira, V. L. & Krepsky, N., 2022. How does the brown mussel Perna perna respond to environmental pollution? A review on pollution biomarkers. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 111: 412–428, ISSN: 1001-0742.

Dutta, S. & Bahadur, M., 2019. Comet assay genotoxicity evaluation of occupationally exposed tea-garden workers in northern West Bengal, India. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 844: 1–9, ISSN: 1383-5718.

Erikel, E.; Yuzbasioglu, D. & Unal, F., 2020. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of amygdalin on isolated human lymphocytes by the comet assay. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 44(10): e13436, ISSN: 0145-8884.

Erraud, A.; Bonnard, M.; Duflot, A.; Geffard, A.; Danger, J.-M.; Forget-Leray, J. & Xuereb, B., 2018. Assessment of sperm quality in palaemonid prawns using Comet assay: methodological optimization. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(12): 11226–11237, ISSN: 1614-7499.

Essawy, A. E.; Osman, G. Y.; Morshedy, R. M. El; Al-Nasser, A. S. & Sheir, S. K., 2021. Immune responses, DNA damage and ultrastructural alterations of gills in the marine mussel Lithophaga lithophaga exposed to CuO nanoparticles. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, : 1–16, ISSN: 1614-7499.

Fossi, M. C.; Leonzio, C. & Peakall, D. B., 2020. The use of nondestructive biomarkers in the hazard assessments of vertebrate populations. In: Nondestructive biomarkers in vertebrates, CRC Press, pp. 3–34, ISBN: 036781370X.

Gabbianelli, R.; Villarini, M.; Falcioni, G. & Lupidi, G., 2002. Effect of different organotin compounds on DNA of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) erythrocytes assessed by the comet assay. Applied organometallic chemistry, 16(4): 163–168, ISSN: 0268-2605.

Gajski, G.; Ravlić, S.; Godschalk, R.; Collins, A.; Dusinska, M. & Brunborg, G., 2021. Application of the comet assay for the evaluation of DNA damage in mature sperm. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 788: 108398, ISSN: 1383-5742.

Gajski, G.; Žegura, B.; Ladeira, C.; Pourrut, B.; Del Bo, C.; Novak, M.; Sramkova, M.; Milić, M.; Gutzkow, K. B. & Costa, S., 2019. The comet assay in animal models: From bugs to whales–(Part 1 Invertebrates). Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 779: 82–113, ISSN: 1383-5742.

Gallo, A. & Tosti, E., 2020. Reproductive Processes of Marine Animals as Biomarker for Environmental Stress Impact. Encyclopedia of Marine Biotechnology, : 3283–3298.

Ganaie, H. A., 2021. Mechanism of Toxicity in Aquatic Life. Freshwater Pollution and Aquatic Ecosystems: Environmental Impact and Sustainable Management, : 109, ISSN: 1000291138.

Gazo, I.; Naraine, R.; Lebeda, I.; Tomčala, A.; Dietrich, M.; Fraňek, R.; Pšenička, M. & Šindelka, R., 2022. Transcriptome and Proteome Analyses Reveal Stage-Specific DNA Damage Response in Embryos of Endangered Sturgeon. .

Gecheva, G.; Yancheva, V.; Velcheva, I.; Georgieva, E.; Stoyanova, S.; Arnaudova, D.; Stefanova, V.; Georgieva, D.; Genina, V. & Todorova, B., 2020. Integrated monitoring with moss-bag and mussel transplants in reservoirs. Water, 12(6): 1800.

Georgieva, E.; Velcheva, I.; Yancheva, V.; Stoyanova, S.; Vasileva, T.; Bivolarski, V.; Todorova, B. & Iliev, I., 2021. A Review on Multi-Biomarkers in Fish for the Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystem Contamination with Organic Pollutants. Ecologia Balkanica, 13(2), ISSN: 1313-9940.

González, E. A. P.; Miana, V. V & Palermo, A. M., 2018. Optimization of Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electropohoresis (Comet Assay) Protocol for Cells from Oral Cavity. Optimization, 26(4).

Guidi, P.; Bernardeschi, M.; Palumbo, M.; Scarcelli, V.; Genovese, M.; Protano, G.; Vitiello, V.; Pontorno, L.; Bonciani, L.; Buttino, I.; Chiaretti, G.; Pellegrini, D.; Fiorati, A.; Riva, L.; Punta, C.; Corsi, I. & Frenzilli, G., . 2021. Cellular Responses Induced by Zinc in Zebra Mussel Haemocytes. Loss of DNA Integrity as a Cellular Mechanism to Evaluate the Suitability of Nanocellulose-Based Materials in Nanoremediation. vol. 11, Nanomaterials , ISBN: 2079-4991 .

Guimarães, A. T. B.; Estrela, F. N.; Pereira, P. S.; de Andrade Vieira, J. E.; de Lima Rodrigues, A. S.; Silva, F. G. & Malafaia, G., 2021. Toxicity of polystyrene nanoplastics in Ctenopharyngodon idella juveniles: a genotoxic, mutagenic and cytotoxic perspective. Science of The Total Environment, 752: 141937, ISSN: 0048-9697.

Hagger, J. A.; Depledge, M. H. & Galloway, T. S., 2005. Toxicity of tributyltin in the marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. Marine pollution bulletin, 51(8–12): 811–816, ISSN: 0025-326X.

Halliwell, B., 2001. Food-derived antioxidants: how to evaluate their importance in food and in vivo. Handbook of antioxidants, 690.

Harayashiki, C. A. Y.; Márquez, F.; Cariou, E. & Castro, Í. B., 2020. Mollusk shell alterations resulting from coastal contamination and other environmental factors. Environmental Pollution, 265: 114881, ISSN: 0269-7491.

Hemalatha, D.; Nataraj, B.; Rangasamy, B.; Shobana, C. & Ramesh, M., 2019. DNA damage and physiological responses in an Indian major carp Labeo rohita exposed to an antimicrobial agent triclosan. Fish physiology and biochemistry, 45(4): 1463–1484, ISSN: 1573-5168.

Hong, Y.; Han, H.-J.; Lee, H.; Lee, D.; Ko, J.; Hong, Z.; Lee, J.-Y.; Seok, J.-H.; Lim, H. S. & Son, W.-C., 2020. Deep learning method for comet segmentation and comet assay image analysis. Scientific Reports, 10(1): 1–12, ISSN: 2045-2322.

Huang, G. & Wang, Y., 1995. Effects of tributyltin chloride on marine bivalve mussels. Water Research, 29(8): 1877–1884, ISSN: 0043-1354.

Ivorra, L.; Cruzeiro, C.; Ramos, A.; Tagulao, K. & Cardoso, P. G., 2022. How can environmental conditions influence dicofol genotoxicity on the edible Asiatic clam, Meretrix meretrix? Environmental Pollution, 293: 118467, ISSN: 0269-7491.

Jeddi, M. Z.; Hopf, N. B.; Viegas, S.; Price, A. B.; Paini, A.; van Thriel, C.; Benfenati, E.; Ndaw, S.; Bessems, J. & Behnisch, P. A., 2021. Towards a systematic use of effect biomarkers in population and occupational biomonitoring. Environment International, 146: 106257, ISSN: 0160-4120.

Jha, A. N.; Hagger, J. A. & Hill, S. J., 2000. Tributyltin induces cytogenetic damage in the early life stages of the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, 35(4): 343–350, ISSN: 0893-6692.

Khan, M. I.; Zahoor, M.; Khan, A.; Gulfam, N. & Khisroon, M., 2019. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and their Genotoxic Effect on Freshwater Mussel. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 102(1): 52–58, ISSN: 1432-0800, DOI: 10.1007/s00128-018-2492-4, Available: <https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2492-4>.

Khondee, P.; Srisomsap, C.; Chokchaichamnankit, D.; Svasti, J.; Simpson, R. J. & Kingtong, S., 2016. Histopathological effect and stress response of mantle proteome following TBT exposure in the Hooded oyster Saccostrea cucullata. Environmental pollution, 218: 855–862, ISSN: 0269-7491.

Kim, D. V; Makarova, A. V; Miftakhova, R. R. & Zharkov, D. O., 2019. Base excision DNA repair deficient cells: From disease models to genotoxicity sensors. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 25(3): 298–312, ISSN: 1381-6128.

Krampitz, G.; Drolshagen, H. & Deltreil, J. P., 1983. Soluble matrix components in malformed oyster shells. Experientia, 39(10): 1105–1106, ISSN: 1420-9071.

Kuchařová, M.; Hronek, M.; Rybáková, K.; Zadák, Z.; Štětina, R.; Joskova, V. & Patková, A., 2019. Comet assay and its use for evaluating oxidative DNA damage in some pathological states. Physiological research, 68(1): 1–15, ISSN: 0862-8408.

Kumari, K. & Khare, A., 2018. Integration of Biomarker approach in pollution monitoring programme of aquatic ecosystem. In: Biosynthetic Technology and Environmental Challenges, Springer, pp. 331–354.

Laughlin, R. B.; French, W. & Guard, H. E., 1986. Accumulation of bis (tributyltin) oxide by the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. Environmental science & technology, 20(9): 884–890, ISSN: 0013-936X.

Lee, C.-C.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chen, C. S. & Tien, C.-J., 2020. Emergent contaminants in sediments and fishes from the Tamsui River (Taiwan): Their spatial-temporal distribution and risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Environmental Pollution, 258: 113733, ISSN: 0269-7491.

Lee, S.; John, B.; Gene, J.; Gerald, M.; William, R.; John, S. & Scott, S., 2018. DNA Alterations. In: Biomarkers, CRC Press, pp. 125–154, ISBN: 1351070274.

Lelieveld, S.; Wilson, J.; Dovrou, E.; Mishra, A.; Lakey, P. S. J.; Shiraiwa, M.; Pöschl, U. & Berkemeier, T., 2021. Hydroxyl Radical Production by Air Pollutants in Epithelial Lining Fluid Governed by Interconversion and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species. Environmental science & technology, 55(20): 14069–14079, ISSN: 0013-936X.

Lionetto, M. G.; Caricato, R. & Giordano, M. E., 2019. Pollution Biomarkers in Environmental and Human Biomonitoring. The Open Biomarkers Journal, 9(1).

Liu, S.; Yan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Junaid, M. & Wang, J., 2022. Polystyrene nanoplastics exacerbated the ecotoxicological and potential carcinogenic effects of tetracycline in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Science of The Total Environment, 803: 150027, ISSN: 0048-9697.

Lundebye, A.-K.; Langston, W. J. & Depledge, M. H., 1997. Stress proteins and condition index as biomarkers of tributyltin exposure and effect in mussels. Ecotoxicology, 6: 127–136.

Madkour, L. H., 2019. Function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the living organisms and sources of oxidants. Pharm. Sci. Anal. Res. J, 2: 180023.

Mahboob, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Khan, M. F.; Saho, C.; Virik, P.; Al-Mulhm, N. & Baabbad, A. A. A., 2022. Ecogenotoxicological studies for an early toxicity screening and monitoring in Epinephalus chlorostigma and Scamberomorus commerson. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, ISSN: 1319-562X.

May, S.; Hirsch, C.; Rippl, A.; Bürkle, A. & Wick, P., 2022. Assessing Genotoxicity of Ten Different Engineered Nanomaterials by the Novel Semi-Automated FADU Assay and the Alkaline Comet Assay. Nanomaterials, 12(2): 220.

McLaughlin, M. C.; Blotevogel, J.; Watson, R. A.; Schell, B.; Blewett, T. A.; Folkerts, E. J.; Goss, G. G.; Truong, L.; Tanguay, R. L. & Argueso, J. L., 2020. Mutagenicity assessment downstream of oil and gas produced water discharges intended for agricultural beneficial reuse. Science of The Total Environment, 715: 136944, ISSN: 0048-9697.

Medda, N.; De, S. K. & Maiti, S., 2021. Different mechanisms of arsenic related signaling in cellular proliferation, apoptosis and neo-plastic transformation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 208: 111752, ISSN: 0147-6513.

Métais, I.; Châtel, A.; Mouloud, M.; Perrein-Ettajani, H.; Bruneau, M.; Gillet, P.; Jrad, N. & Mouneyrac, C., 2019. Is there a link between acetylcholinesterase, behaviour and density populations of the ragworm Hediste diversicolor? Marine pollution bulletin, 142: 178–182, ISSN: 0025-326X.

Mičić, M.; Bihari, N.; Labura, Ž.; Müller, W. E. G. & Batel, R., 2001. Induction of apoptosis in the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis by tri-n-butyltin chloride. Aquatic toxicology, 55(1–2): 61–73, ISSN: 0166-445X.

Mitchelmore, C. L.; Birmelin, C.; Livingstone, D. R. & Chipman, J. K., 1998. Detection of DNA strand breaks in isolated mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) digestive gland cells using the “comet” assay. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 41(1): 51–58, ISSN: 0147-6513.

Mitchelmore, C. L. & Chipman, J. K., 1998. DNA strand breakage in aquatic organisms and the potential value of the comet assay in environmental monitoring. Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 399(2): 135–147, ISSN: 00275107, DOI: 10.1016/S0027-5107(97)00252-2.

Møller, P.; Stopper, H. & Collins, A. R., 2020. Measurement of DNA damage with the comet assay in high-prevalence diseases: current status and future directions. Mutagenesis, 35(1): 5–18, ISSN: 0267-8357.

Muruzabal, D.; Sanz-Serrano, J.; Sauvaigo, S.; Treillard, B.; Olsen, A.-K.; López de Cerain, A.; Vettorazzi, A. & Azqueta, A., 2021. Validation of the in vitro comet assay for DNA cross-links and altered bases detection. Archives of toxicology, 95(8): 2825–2838, ISSN: 1432-0738.

Odongo, G. A.; Skatchkov, I.; Herz, C. & Lamy, E., 2019. Optimization of the alkaline comet assay for easy repair capacity quantification of oxidative DNA damage in PBMC from human volunteers using aphidicolin block. DNA repair, 77: 58–64, ISSN: 1568-7864.

Olive, P. L.; Banáth, J. P. & Durand, R. E., 1990. Heterogeneity in radiation-induced DNA damage and repair in tumor and normal cells measured using the" comet" assay. Radiation research, 122(1): 86–94, ISSN: 0033-7587.

Page, D. S.; Dassanayake, T. M. & Gilfillan, E. S., 1996. Relationship Between Tissue Concentrations of Tibutyltin and Shell Morphology in Field Populations of Mytilus edulis. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 56(3): 500–504, ISSN: 0007-4861.

Park, J. K.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, H. H.; Choi, I. S. & Dai Park, S., 1991. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced single strand breaks is attributed to slower rejoining processes by DNA polymerase inhibitor, cytosine arabinoside in CHO-K1 cells. Life sciences, 48(13): 1255–1261, ISSN: 0024-3205.

Pearson, H. B. C.; Dallas, L. J.; Comber, S. D. W.; Braungardt, C. B.; Worsfold, P. J. & Jha, A. N., 2018. Mixtures of tritiated water, zinc and dissolved organic carbon: Assessing interactive bioaccumulation and genotoxic effects in marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 187: 133–143, ISSN: 0265-931X.

Pellegri, V.; Gorbi, G. & Buschini, A., 2020. DNA damage detection by Comet Assay on Daphnia magna: Application in freshwater biomonitoring. Science of The Total Environment, 705: 135780, ISSN: 0048-9697.

Perovic, S.; Sljukic, B.; Šrut, M.; Perovic, A. & Klobučar, G. I. V, 2020. Evaluation of DNA damage in haemolymph of freshwater mussels Unio pictorum from Lake Skadar. Biologia, 75(3): 431–436, ISSN: 1336-9563.

Phelps, H. L., 1990. Tributyltin in Portugal: Biomonitoring using the shell thickness index. In: Proceedings of the Third International Organotin Symposium, Washington, DC, Marine Technology Society, pp. 205–206.

Phelps, H. L. & Page, D. S., 1997. Tributyltin biomonitoring in Portuguese estuaries with the Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata). Environmental technology, 18(12): 1269–1276, ISSN: 0959-3330.

Poirier, M. C., 2021. DNA damage in cetaceans: A mini review. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 870: 503392, ISSN: 1383-5718.

Puccia, E.; Mansueto, C.; Cangialosi, M. V; Fiore, T.; Di Stefano, R.; Pellerito, C.; Triolo, F. & Pellerito, L., 2001. Organometallic complexes with biological molecules. XV. Effects of tributyltin (IV) chloride on enzyme activity, Ca2+, and biomolecule and synthesis in Ciona intestinalis (Urochordata) ovary. Applied organometallic chemistry, 15(3): 213–220, ISSN: 0268-2605.

Qin, N.; He, W.; Liu, W.; Kong, X.; Xu, F. & Giesy, J. P., 2020. Tissue distribution, bioaccumulation, and carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic organisms from Lake Chaohu, China. Science of the Total Environment, 749: 141577, ISSN: 0048-9697.

Qu, M.; Ding, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Y. & Di, Y., 2019. Genetic impacts induced by BaP and Pb in Mytilus coruscus: Can RAPD be a validated tool in genotoxicity evaluation both in vivo and in vitro? Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 169: 529–538, ISSN: 0147-6513.

Rajendran, M. S.; Prabhakaran, R.; Vignesh, S. & Nagarathinam, B., 2021. Comet Assay: Is it a Sensitive Tool in Ecogenotoxicology? In: Environmental Biotechnology 4, Springer, pp. 181–199.

Schuijt, L. M.; Peng, F.-J.; van den Berg, S. J. P.; Dingemans, M. M. L. & Van den Brink, P. J., 2021. (Eco) toxicological tests for assessing impacts of chemical stress to aquatic ecosystems: Facts, challenges, and future. Science of the Total Environment, 795: 148776, ISSN: 0048-9697.

Singh, N. P.; McCoy, M. T.; Tice, R. R. & Schneider, E. L., 1988. A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Experimental cell research, 175(1): 184–191, ISSN: 0014-4827.

Speit, G. & Hartmann, A., 1995. The contribution of excision repair to the DNA effects seen in the alkaline single cell gel test (comet assay). Mutagenesis, 10(6): 555–560, ISSN: 1464-3804.

Stephenson, M.; Smith, D.; Goetel, J.; Icnikawa, G. & Martin, M., 1986. Growth abnormalities in mussels and oysters from areas with high levels of tributyltin in San Diego Bay. In: OCEANS86, IEEE, pp. 1246–1251.

Sussarellu, R.; Chouvelon, T.; Aminot, Y.; Couteau, J.; Loppion, G.; Dégremont, L.; Lamy, J.-B.; Akcha, F.; Rouxel, J. & Berthelin, C., 2022. Differences in chemical contaminants bioaccumulation and ecotoxicology biomarkers in Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis and their hybrids. Environmental Pollution, 292: 118328, ISSN: 0269-7491.

Tatin, X.; Muggiolu, G.; Sauvaigo, S. & Breton, J., 2021. Evaluation of DNA double-strand break repair capacity in human cells: Critical overview of current functional methods. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 788: 108388, ISSN: 1383-5742.

Tiano, L.; Fedeli, D.; Moretti, M. & Falcioni, G., 2001. DNA damage induced by organotins on trout‐nucleated erythrocytes. Applied organometallic chemistry, 15(7): 575–580, ISSN: 0268-2605.

Velali, E.; Pantazaki, A.; Besis, A.; Choli-Papadopoulou, T. & Samara, C., 2019. Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mutagenicity induced by the extractable organic matter of airborne particulates on bacterial models. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 104: 59–73, ISSN: 0273-2300.

Venier, P. & Canova, S., 1996. Formation of DNA adducts in the gill tissue of Mytilus galloprovincialis treated with benzo [a] pyrene. Aquatic toxicology, 34(2): 119–133, ISSN: 0166-445X.

Waldock, M. J. & Thain, J. E., 1983. Shell thickening in Crassostrea gigas: organotin antifouling or sediment induced? Marine pollution bulletin, 14(11): 411–415, ISSN: 0025-326X.

Wilson, J. T.; Pascoe, P. L.; Parry, J. M. & Dixon, D. R., 1998. Evaluation of the comet assay as a method for the detection of DNA damage in the cells of a marine invertebrate, Mytilus edulis L. (Mollusca: Pelecypoda). Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 399(1): 87–95, ISSN: 0027-5107.

Winkelbeiner, N.; Wandt, V. K.; Ebert, F.; Lossow, K.; Bankoglu, E. E.; Martin, M.; Mangerich, A.; Stopper, H.; Bornhorst, J. & Kipp, A. P., 2020. A multi-endpoint approach to base excision repair incision activity augmented by parylation and DNA damage levels in mice: Impact of sex and age. International journal of molecular sciences, 21(18): 6600.

Xu, K.; Tang, Z.; Liu, S.; Xia, H.; Liu, L.; Wang, Z. & Qi, P., 2018. Effects of low concentrations copper on antioxidant responses, DNA damage and genotoxicity in thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus. Fish & shellfish immunology, 82: 77–83, ISSN: 1050-4648.

Yaqin, K., 2006. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Aquatic Genotoxicity Using the Comet Assay. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 13(3), ISSN: 20864094, DOI: 10.1016/S1978-3019(16)30305-9.

Yaqin, K., 2019. Petunjuk praktis aplikasi biomarker sederhana. 1st ed., Makassar: UPT, Unhas Press, 54 p., ISBN: 9789795302209.

Yaqin, K.; Lay, B.; Riani, E. & Masud, Z., 2011. Hot spot biomonitoring of marine pollution effects using cholinergic and immunity biomarkers of tropical green mussel (Perna viridis) of the Indonesian waters. Journal of Toxicology, 3(14): 356–366.

Žegura, B. & Filipič, M., 2019. The application of the Comet assay in fish cell lines. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 842: 72–84, ISSN: 1383-5718, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2019.01.011, Available: <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383571818303103>.

Bibliographic Information

Verify authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article as:

Yaqin, K., 2022. DNA damage and shell malformation in Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis. Akuatikisle: Jurnal Akuakultur, Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil 6(1): 65-74. https://doi.org/10.29239/j.akuatikisle.6.1.65-74
  • Submitted
    12 March 2022
  • Revised
    11 June 2022
  • Accepted
    Not available
  • Published
    18 May 2022
  • Issue date
    1 May 2022
  • Discipline(s)
    Environmental Science; Marine Sciences; Pollution


Khusnul  Yaqin

KhusnulYaqin, Program Studi Manajemen Sumberdaya Perairan, Jurusan Perikanan, Fakultas Ilmu Kelautan dan Perikanan Universitas Hasanuddin, Sulawesi Selatan 90245, Indonesia. khusnul@unhas.ac.id, orcid Orcid Profile, scholarGoogle Scholar Profile

View full text

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.